House dust mite allergy sufferers react to various protein particles from the body and the faeces of the mites with an excessive immune reaction. Their immune system incorrectly classifies these allergens as dangerous and forms antibodies of the immunoglobulin E type (short: IgE). In the further course of the allergic reaction, various messenger substances such as histamine are released, which trigger allergic symptoms in various organs (nose, eyes, lungs). In the case of allergic rhinitis or hay fever, the nose is congested, runs, itches or must often be sneezed. If the eyes are also reddened and watery, this is allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. If the deeper airways are also affected and pulmonary breathing is impaired by seizure-like shortness of breath and coughing, it can be allergic asthma.
How it comes to an allergy against house dust mites is not yet fully clarified. Environmental factors, smoking, changes in eating habits and excessive hygiene seem to favour the development of allergies. Genetic predisposition also plays a role. Children whose parents or grandparents are already allergic have an increased risk of developing an allergy.(1) If you suffer from allergic symptoms indoors all year round and react more strongly to dust in your home, there is a suspicion of a house dust mite allergy.
Only a specialist with an allergological focus can determine beyond doubt whether you are allergic to house dust mites.
References and references
1] Information sheet of the Deutsche Atemwegsliga e.V. (German Respiratory League)